Outside Munich there is little for us to find. Johann Friedrich Steinkopf (1737-1825), the animal painter who worked at the court of Württemberg, modeled himself on Philips Wouwerman and Johann Heinrich Roos and later on Paulus Potter, as is fitting for a ‘progressive’ realist. His horse paintings are no masterpieces though [i][i][i].188

Johann Friedrich Steinkopf  
Free horses in a stud farm c. 1780
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
Private collection



Johann Friedrich Steinkopf  
Horseman with two horses in a landscape c. 1780
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
Private collection



Johann Friedrich Steinkopf  
Two horsemen in front of a farm dated 1781
oil paint / canvas, 29,5 x 37,4 cm
London (England) ( Manson & Woods Christie), 1986-05-23, no. 25



In Augsburg, around 1770, we see a still-life painter Willem Robart at work, whose pictures seem to have got lost, and who is said to have been a pupil of Jan van Huijsum.189 The landscape and animal painter Johann Elias Ridinger (1698-1767) [i] was, as a pupil of Johann Falch (who painted still-lifes in the manner of Marseus van Schrieck), Carl Wilhelm de Hamilton and Georg Philipp Rugendas I, still in contact with Dutch training from the 17th century. During his first time in Augsburg he also copied old masters. His drawn landscapes look like those of the late Dirk Maas and these lively sheets still kept something of Berchem’s poetry [i][i][i].190 As in the case of Georg Philipp Rugendas I, we cannot explore his activity as an engraver.

Johann Elias Ridinger  
A hunter aiming at a red deer in the water under an old tree dated 1735
pencil / paper, 275 x 200 mm
lower left :  E. Ridinger del.
bottom, in the middle :  Anno 1735
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1958-39



Johann Jakob Ridinger   after Johann Elias Ridinger  
Portrait of Johann Elias Ridinger (1698-1767) dated 1767
mezzotint / paper, 393 x 265 mm
lower center :  Dedié à Monsieur / Jean Elie Ridinger / Peintre et Graveur et Directeur de l'Academie / d' Augsburg / Gravé par son très humble et obéissant fils Jean Jaq Ridinger An. 1767
British Museum, London (England), no. Bb,1.312



Johann Elias Ridinger  
Stag hunt dated 1721
black chalk / paper, 205 x 320 mm
lower left :  Joh. Elias Ridinger : inv. et del : anno 1721
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Stuttgart, no. 970



Johann Elias Ridinger  
Hunting scene dated 1726
black chalk / paper, 214 x 321 mm
lower left :  Joh. Elias Ridinger : inv. et del : anno 1726 Augsburg
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Stuttgart, no. 972



The graphic artists, especially in Southern Germany, indeed play an important role as mediators of Dutch artistic heritage. Consider Johann Gottfried Haid (1710/14-1776)191 and Johann Elias Haid (1739-1809) [i], the Hertel family of engravers from Augsburg, of whom the young Johann Georg Hertel exclusively worked after Rembrandt and Schalcken [i][i],192 and Elias Baeck (1679-1747/1756), who etched after Berchem’s compositions [i][i].193

Elias Baeck   after Nicolaes Berchem   published by Matteo Giudici alli Cesarini  
Southern landscape with shepherds and their cattle by a river c. 1700-1710
engraving / paper, 142 x 207 mm
lower right :  E. Bäck sc Roma
RKD - Nederlands Institute for Art History (Collection Old Netherlandish Art), The Hague



Elias Baeck   after Nicolaes Berchem   published by Matteo Giudici alli Cesarini  
Southern landscape with shepherds and cattle at a watering place c. 1700-1710
engraving / paper, 137 x 204 mm
lower right :  E. Bäck sc Roma.
RKD - Nederlands Institute for Art History (Collection Old Netherlandish Art), The Hague



Johann Elias Haid   after Godefridus Schalcken  
The five wise and five foolish virgins dated 1782
mezzotint / paper, 561 x 753 mm
lower center :  Les Vierges Sages et Les Vierges folles / D'apres un Tableau de la Gallerie Electorale à Dusseldorf / haut de 2 pieds 11 pouces large de 3 pieds 6 pouces
lower left :  Godfried Schalcken pinxit
lower right :  Johann Elias Haid sculpcit 1782
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. JEHaid V 1.2726



Johann Georg  Hertel (II)   afterRembrandt  
Rembrandt's "Self portrait with a velvet beret" (1750 - 1799)
inkt / paper, ? x ? mm
upper left :  J.G. Hertel sculp
lower right :  Hertel excud.
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam



Johann Georg  Hertel (II)   after Nicolaes Berchem  
Italianate landscape with a shepherd's family and their cattle fording a stream (1750 - 1799)
engraving / paper, 300 x 198 mm
lower left :  Berghem, inv. et del.
lower right :  Ioh.Georg Hertel, exc. AV 4
lower center :  No 110
RKD - Nederlands Institute for Art History (Collection Old Netherlandish Art), The Hague



The Southern German baroque painters, i.e. the painters of churches and altars, do not look principally to the North (and when they do, particularly to Rubens), but to Italy. Sometimes the ‘colourful liveliness’ in the paintings is muted by an imitation of Rembrandt’s chiaroscuro, as was noticed in the work of Johann Evangelist Holzer (1709-1740) [i][i][i][i][i].194 All the same it does seem more likely to me, that in the work of Franz Joseph Spiegler (1691-1756) his chiaroscuro and the ‘Rembrandt-like lighting effects’ are derived from Venice. In Spiegler’s paintings we also come across types and compositional elements, which stem from Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) [i].195 In general the art from Augsburg is Italianate; moreover the path for a regional concept was paved by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld and Johann Heiss.196 No Dutch influence would emanate from Johann Ulrich Mayr, as he had bidden farewell to the Dutch style in his altarpieces.

Johann Evangelist Holzer  
Holofernes beheaded by Judith with his own sword (Judith 8-16) ca. 1734
etching / paper, 80 x 64 mm
Berlin (Galerie Gerda Bassenge), 2016-11-24 - 2016-11-26, no. 5322



Franz Joseph Spiegler  
The Queen of Sheba bringing gifts for Solomon (1 King 10:2) (1708 - 1756)
oil paint / canvas, 127 x 148 cm
location unknown :  F.J. Spiegler inv. et pinx. 1734
monastery  Kloster und Schloss Salem, Salem (Tübingen)



after Johann Evangelist Holzer  
The adoration of the shepherds after 1732
oil paint / canvas, 40,5 x 31,3 cm
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, no. Gem 1382



after Johann Evangelist Holzer  
The adoration of the kings after 1732
oil paint / canvas, 40,9 x 31,1 cm
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, no. Gem 1381



Johann Evangelist Holzer  
The adoration of the shepherds c.1732
etching / paper, 160 x 105 mm
lower left :  Ioh. Holzer inv. et fecit
Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg, Augsburg, no. G 4500



Johann Evangelist Holzer  
The adoration of the kings c.1732
etching / paper, 160 x 105 mm
lower left :  Ioh. Holzer inv. et fecit.
Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg, Augsburg, no. G 4499



Footnotes

188 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schefold 1939.

189 [Van Leeuwen 2018] It seems hardly possibly that Willem Robart, is identical to the person who worked in Augsburg in the 1770s. There is a Huijsum-like flower still-life by a R.G. Robart (RKDimages 60710), of whom we have no biographical information.

190 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Ridinger as a draughtsman: Berg 2014.

191 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Johann Gottfried Haid left Augsburg after c. 1750 and worked mainly in Austria and London (several reproductive prints he made in London in RKDimages). His nephew Johann Elias took over the publishing house of his father Johann Jakob in Augsburg after the latter’s death in 1776. Johann Elias had commissions throughout Germany, such as the engraving works in the Düsseldorf Gallery in 1782.

192 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Johann Georg II (not Gottfried, as Gerson stated) did work after many Dutch, Flemish and German masters.

193 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Several prints by the Augsburg printmaker Elias Baeck after or in the manner of Nicolaes Berchem originated in Rome c. 1700-1710, where they were published by Matteo Giudici alli Cesarini.

194 [Gerson 1942/1983] Feulner 1913, p. 746; Feulner 1929, p. 180-181. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Feulner refers to colourful designs in oils for two prints, The Adoration of the Kings and The Adoration of the Shepherds (Augsburg, collection Röhrer), which, in old sources, were considered to have been painted ‘in the taste of Rembrandt’. However, the paintings actually were copies after the prints (Braun/Wiercinski 2010, p. 296, ill.), just like two paintings which were auctioned on 2 April 2017 by Dorotheum, Vienna, nos. 22-23, as school of Johann Evangelist Holzer. It is clear that Holzer only took (the etchings of) Rembrandt as an example in his etchings.

195 [Gerson 1942/1983] Ill. in Biermann 1914 , no. 96. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Spiegler: Schömig 1976.

196 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson wrongly stated Schönberg instead of Schönfeld.