The 19th century discovered Frans Hals, whose style became imitated every now and then.319 His fresh technique and his brighter colours in comparison with Rembrandt made him loved, while his dark and melancholic late works could not be imitated. Men with floppy hats which earlier were lit and costumed in the way of Rembrandt, were now technically and quickly painted à la Frans Hals, e.g. by Eduard Magnus (1799-1872) [i][i].320

Eduard Magnus  
Male head with beard (1823 - 1872)
oil paint / cardboard, 37 x 31,7 cm
Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, no. SZ Magnus 7

Eduard Magnus  
Portrait of the author Paul Heyse (1830-1914 1849
oil paint / canvas, 58,5 x 49 cm
München (Neumeister), 2014-09-24, no. 542

Of Adolph Menzel (1815-1905) we know, that he loved the Dutch masters and admired the ‘truly spirited and solid materialism’ of the French [i][i].321 The breezy, unconventional paintings of his early and middle period have a freshness that reminds us of the Haarlem School.

Adolph Menzel  
Study of a man's head dated 1855
oil paint / paper on linen, 60,7 x 48 cm
Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, no. 2774

Adolph Menzel  
Bedroom of the artist Friedrich von Menzel in the Ritterstraße, Berlin dated 1847
oil paint / cardboard, 56 x 46 cm
lower right :  A M 47
Nationalgalerie (Berlijn), Berlin, no. A I 860

Of the painters from Munich we principally have to mention Franz von Lenbach and Wilhelm Leibl. The old master style became second nature for Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904) [i]: he copied the art of Rubens [i][i][i] and Anthony van Dyck [i], as well as their lifestyle.322 Admittedly, Frans Hals doesn’t really fit in, but there are portraits of Dutch girls in his oeuvre that strive to emulate Frans Hals and Judith Leyster, both technically and stylistically (ill. 96)[i].323

Franz von Lenbach   after Peter Paul Rubens  
Self-Portrait of Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) (1851 - 1865)
oil paint / canvas, 86,2 x 63,7 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 11441

Franz von Lenbach   after Peter Paul Rubens  
Saint Cecilia playing the virginal (1851 - 1899)
oil paint / canvas, 177 x 140 cm
München ( Hugo Helbing), 1931-07-10, no. 68

Franz von Lenbach  
Portait of a Russian princess 1863
oil paint / canvas, 83,3 x 67,4 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 8873

Franz von Lenbach  
Self-portrait of Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904) date 1866
oil paint / canvas, 47 x 38 cm
Schackgalerie, Munich, no. 11454

Franz von Lenbach   after Peter Paul Rubens  
Portrait of Isabella Brandt (1851 - 1866)
oil paint / panel, 39 x 29 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 11433

Franz von Lenbach  
Portait of a Durch girl dated 1898
oil paint / hardboard, 76 x 60,5 cm
upper left :  F Lenbach 1898.
London (England) (Sotheby Parke Bernet), 1983-06-22 - 1983-06-23, no. 232

Wilhelm Leibl (1844-1900)324 was a great admirer of the Haarlem artist [i][i][i]. ’There never was a greater painter than Frans Hals and there never will be’, he writes from Holland.325 He never forgot the impression Frans Hals made on him, which is reflected in his paintings, although he did not imitate his technique. It is said of him that ‘Frans Hals had become the patron, whose protection he recommended for himself and his friends’.326

Wilhelm Leibl  
Portrait of a Lady in black dated 1872
oil paint / canvas, 124,7 x 88 cm
on the back :  208 / Leibl / Dame in Schwarz; Erste / Muenchener Vergolder-Genossenschaft.
on the back :  [...] Secess [...] / 39
Regional Art Gallery in Liberec, Liberec, no. O - 193

Wilhelm Leibl  
Young Parisian woman 1869 dated
oil paint / panel, 64,5 x 52,5 cm
upper right :  W. Leibl 1869
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne

Wilhelm Leibl  
Portrait of a boy with a large ruff (1869 - 1870)
oil paint / canvas, 75,8 x 61 cm
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Neurenberg, no. Gm 1748


Eduard Gebhardt (1838-1925) [i][i][i],327 Johann Sperl (1840-1914)328 [i] and Fritz von Uhde (1848-1911)329 [i][i][i] were artists, who venerated the same ‘patron saint’.

Johann Sperl  
Love letter between 1882-1885
oil paint / panel, 21,5 x 16 cm
lower right :  Sperl
art dealer  Gailer Fine Art Chiemsee, Frauenchiemsee

Fritz von Uhde  
A singer in a cabaret dated 1880
oil paint / canvas, 136,8 x 200 cm
lower left :  F.v.Uhde Paris 1880
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 8520

Fritz von Uhde  
The Family Concert dated 1881
oil paint / canvas, 187 x 253 cm
lower right :  F. Uhde / 1881
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, no. WRM 1146

Eduard Gebhardt  
Wife of the artist (1878)
oil paint / panel, 92 x 69,5 cm
lower left :  E. v. Gebhardt
Gemäldegalerie Neue Meister (Dresden), Dresden, no. 8631

Eduard Gebhardt  
Dutch Mother and Child dated 1914
oil paint / panel (mahogany), 54 x 45 cm
upper right :  E.v. Gebhardt / 1914
Ahlden ( Florian Seidel), 2011-05-14 - 2011-05-21, no. 1373

Eduard Gebhardt  
Portrait of the artist's wife dressed as a Dutch patrician woman dated 1908
oil paint / panel, 87 x 60 cm
upper right :  E. v. Gebhardt 1908
Frankfurt am Main ( Rudolf Bangel), 1927-05-17, no. 23

Fritz von Uhde  
The Radish-woman 1884 to be dated
oil paint / canvas, 75 x 63,5 cm
Kunsthalle Bremen, Bremen, no. 332

In 1869 Frans Hals’s Malle Babbe from the Suermondt Collection was being exhibited in Munich and the artistic world was thrilled. Gustave Courbet, who was there just at that time, gave expression to his admiration in a copy [i][i].330

Frans  Hals (I)  
Woman drinking, with an owl on her shoulder first half 1630s
oil paint / canvas, 75 x 64 cm
Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), Berlin, no. 801C

Gustave Courbet   after Frans  Hals (I)  
Woman drinking, with an owl on her shoulder 1869 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 85 x 71 cm
lower left :  69 G. Courbet
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, no. 2262

When Max Liebermann (1847-1935) came to Holland some years later (1873), Frans Hals became his guide ‘… to impressionistic freedom and liveliness. Of all the old masters, he was closest to his temperament’ [i][i][i][i][i].331 Liebermann's repeated journeys fortified the ties of friendship to the old and the living masters of Holland. 332 Thus, in conclusion, we are happy to see, that Dutch painting of the 17th century occasionally awakened artistic powers in a younger generation, without degenerating into a tasteless and impersonal imitation.

Max Liebermann  
Portrait of Mayor of Hamburg Carl Friedtich Petersen (1809-1892) 1891
oil paint / canvas, 206 x 119 cm
lower right :  M. Liebermann
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, no. 1696

Max Liebermann  
Brother and sister 1873
oil paint / panel, 63 x 48,5 cm
upper left :  M. Lieberman
Private collection

Max Liebermann   after Frans  Hals (I)  
Young woman 1873-1874
oil paint / panel, 53 x 47 cm
lower right : 
on the back :  Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Nr. 791 Zigeunerin nach Hals
Private collection

Max Liebermann   after Frans  Hals (I)  
Study of a hand of one of the officers of the Civic Guard in the Summer of 1876
oil paint / canvas, 26,6 x 32 cm
lower right :  MLiebermann
Private collection

Max Liebermann   free after Frans  Hals (I)  
Portrait of the Sanitätsrat Dr. Sachs (1811-1883) 1878
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
lower left :  M. Liebermann
Whereabouts unknown


319 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On the rediscovery of Frans Hals, Jowell 1989. On the Frans Hals fashion in Munich: Kraan 2002, p. 151-160.

320 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Magnus: Gläser 1963.

321 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Menzel: Keisch 1996-1997. Also Menzel visited the Netherlands 1876. On his trip and his interest in Dutch art: Häder 1999, esp. p. 109-111 and 270.

322 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Lenbach’s copies after Rubens and Van Dyck: Lenz 1997, p. 337-343. Between 1858 and 1870 Lenbach also made small sketches after reproductive prints of works Rembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck and others (Munich, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus). Mehl 1980-1981, p. 89-98, Ranke et al. 1986-1987, p. 191-194.

323 [Gerson 1942/1983] New York, Metropolitan Museum. Lenbach’s Self-Portrait of 1866 in the Schack Gallery is rather in the style of Rembrandt.[Van Leeuwen 2018] The painting was sold at some point by the Metropolitan Museum. It was in Canada in 1974 (Frederick Thom Gallery), in 1977 in London (Cooling Galleries) and auctioned in London (Sotheby’s), 22 June 1983, no. 232. RKDimages 291751 is also painted in the style of the late Rembrandt.

324 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Leibl: Czymmek/Lenz et al. 1994, Holsing et al. 2013.

325 [Van Leeuwen 2018] About this quote: Häder 1999, p. 40-41. Leibl visited the Frans Hals Museum on September 14th, 1898. On his stay in Holland and his connection with Dutch art: Häder 1999, esp. p. 37-41, 265-266. Leibl also copied Rubens (RKDimages 291866).

326 [Gerson 1942/1983] Oldenbourg/Uhde-Bernays 1922, p. 134.

327 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gebhardt was in Holland c. 1858 and returned in 1904 to visit the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem (Häder 1999, p. 254). On Gebhardt: Gries 1995.

328 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Sperl: Diem 1955; Moritz 1995.

329 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Von Uhde was in Holland in 1882 and visited the Frans Hals Museum in September 25th and 29th (Häder 1999, p. 65-72, 286). On Von Uhde: Hansen et al. 1998-1999; Vogel et al. 2013.

330 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Hofman/Herding 1978, p. 305-306, no. 289.

331 [Gerson 1942/1983] Weisbach 1910, vol. 2, p. 264. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Liebermann’s oeuvre: Eberle 1995-1996. On Liebermann and Rembrandt: Stückelberger 1996, p. 67-103. On Liebermann’s copies after Frans Hals: Eberle 1995-1996, no. 1873/16 and 1876/6-1876/24. Several works by Liebermann related to his facination of Frans Hals are on show in the exhibition Frans Hals and the Moderns, Frans Halsmuseum Haarlem, 13 October 2018 - 24 February 2019.

332 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Liebermann's stays in Holland and his connection to Dutch (old and contemporary) masters: Häder 1999, p. 127-134, 266-267. On his relations with Dutch contemporary masters: Heij/Van der Linden-Beins et al. 2006-2007.