Not much good can be said about genre painting which is of interest to our study, being the imitation of Dutch forms and Dutch costumes. Theodor Leopold Weller (1802-1880) [i][i] from Munich and the Viennese Joseph Danhauser (1805-1845), who only occasionally made copies or harked back to old forms [i][i], are still the most palatable figures.309

Joseph Danhauser   after Gerard ter  Borch (II)  
Sketch after a painting by Gerard ter Borch in the Mauritshuis and two heads en profile 1842
pencil / paper, 145 x 114 mm
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna

Joseph Danhauser  
The village politician dated 1844
oil paint / panel, 42 x 52,5 cm
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna

Theodor Leopold Weller  
The return of Italian land workers dated 1831
oil paint / canvas, 83,5 x 114,5 cm
lower left :  18 T/W 31 Olevano.
Neue Pinakothek, Munich

Theodor Leopold Weller  
Landscape with women and cattle at a ruin dated 1826
oil paint / canvas, 45 x 37 cm
lower right :  T.W. 1826
Keulen ( Carola van Ham), 1969-10-15 - 1969-10-18, no. 1895

Again we have to mention Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (1793-1865), who in his youth painted some genre pieces in the manner of Godefridus Schalcken, Gerard van Honthorst [i][i] and Samuel van Hoogstraten [i][i][i][i].310

Samuel van Hoogstraten  
Old man in a window dated 1653
oil paint / canvas, 111 x 86,5 cm
lower right :  SvH / 1653 [SvH in ligature]
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, no. GG 378

Josef Hauzinger   manner of Samuel van Hoogstraten  
Old vrouw in a window in or after 1769
oil paint / canvas, 81 x 76,5 cm
lower right :  Hauzinger Acad Vienensis Professor fecit
Pushkin Museum, Moscow, no. 3239

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller   after Josef Hauzinger   manner of Samuel van Hoogstraten  
Old vrouw in a window ca. 1819
oil paint / canvas, 54 x 52 cm
Vienna ( Löscher Plach), 1878-04-15 - , no. 43B

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller  
Self-portrait with a lantern dated 1824
oil paint / panel, 54 x 45 cm
lower center :  Waldmüller 1824
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller  
Two young women reading a letter: 'The Love Letter' dated 1849
oil paint / canvas, 76 x 61,5 cm
center :  Waldmüller 1849
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2013-10-16, no. 1300

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller  
Young peasant woman with three childeren in a window dated 1840
oil paint / canvas, 84,6 x 67,5 cm
lower right :  Waldmüller 1840
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 12895

Of the others we only give some names that are quite rightly almost forgotten, in chronological order: Johann Georg Meyer von Bremen (1813-1886) [i],311 Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann (1815-1893) [i][i], Arthur Georg von Ramberg (1819-1875) [i], Wilhelm Räuber (1849-1926) [i], Paul Höcker and Claus Meyer. Meyer von Bremen strove to paint homely scenes in a warm Rembrandt light, Zimmermann tended more to a Frans Hals-like technique and Ramberg was one of the many tasteless costume painters. Their Belgian and French colleagues have already introduced us to this unattractive genre.312

Arthur George von Ramberg  
After the meal c. 1870
oil paint / canvas, 79,7 x 102,3 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 7699

Wilhelm Räuber  
Falconry near a lake dated 1885
oil paint / canvas, 74 x 125 cm
upper right :  W. Räuber M 1885
Zürich (Koller), 1988-03-16 - 1988-03-19

Johann Georg Meyer  
A Lady Writing dated 1851
oil paint / canvas, 48,5 x 38,5 cm
location unknown :  Meyer von Bremen 851
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2012-04-17, no. 43

Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann  
Merry company in an inn (1835 - 1893)
oil paint / canvas, 25,4 x 30,3 cm
lower left :  R.S. Z.
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2011-02-15, no. 59

Ernst Karl Georg Zimmermann  
A man and a girl in a Dutch interior (1870 - 1901)
oil paint / panel, 66 x 48 cm
lower left :  Ernst Zimmermann
München ( Hugo Helbing), 1913-06-17, no. 109

Paul Höcker (1854-1910) [i][i] and Claus Meyer (1856-1919) travelled together with Count Leopold von Kalckreuth (1855-1928) to Holland, from where they took home some unforgettable impressions.313 Meyer expressed his fondness in countless interiors in the taste of Pieter de Hooch and Johannes Vermeer van Delft [i][i][i][i].314 The effect of the foreshortening and the lighting are if possible even more spicy than in the original and the female inhabitants of Munich parading in 17th-century costume are just a bit too pert to be able to blend in with the room, which is lined with gold leather [i][i].

Claus Meyer   free after Johannes Vermeer  
Woman reading a letter in an interior dated 1890
oil paint / canvas, 65 x 52 cm
upper right :  CLAUS MEYER, Munich, '90.
New York City (American Art Association), 1912-01-15 - 1912-01-17, no. 196

Claus Meyer  
Interior with a man looking out the window c. 1892-1900
oil paint / canvas, 95 x 60 cm
center right :  CLAUSMEYER
Whereabouts unknown

Claus Meyer  
Reading boy (1875 - 1919)
oil paint / canvas, 42,7 x 39 cm
lower right :  Claus Meyer
Regional Art Gallery in Liberec, Liberec

Paul Höcker  
Flirting couple dated 1879
oil paint / panel, 47 x 37,5 cm
lower right :  Paul Hoecker 1879
London (England) (Christie's), 1994-03-18, no. 90

Paul Höcker  
Approaching footsteps dated 1883
oil paint / panel, 24,5 x 18,5 cm
upper right :  P. Höcker München 83
London (England) (Bonhams), 1981-04-16, no. 66

Claus Meyer  
Sweet visit c. 1900
oil paint / unknown, ? x ? cm
lower center :  CLAUS Meyer
Whereabouts unknown

Claus Meyer  
Young woman reading a letter c. 1901
oil paint / unknown, ? x ? cm
lower right :  CLAUS Meyer
Whereabouts unknown

Meyer’s ‘lemonade-sweet imitations of the Dutch interior’ were happily imitated in Munich, among others by Max Gaisser (1857-1922) [i][i][i] and Walter Firle (1859-1929) [i].315

Max Gaisser  
Three smoking and drinking men with a maid in a Dutch interior (1875 - 1922)
oil paint / panel, 50 x 60 cm
lower right :  M. Gaisser 88
München (Sotheby's), 1988-05-18, no. 99

Walter Firle  
Two girls at the window date 1903
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
upper right :  Walther Firle 1903
Whereabouts unknown

Max Gaisser  
Man smoking his pipe in a Dutch interior (1875 - 1922)
oil paint / panel, 21 x 27 cm
lower left :  M. Gaisser
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1994-04-19, no. 593

Max Gaisser  
Two smoking and drinking men with a maid in a Dutch interior dated 1888
oil paint / panel, 38 x 30 cm
lower right :  M. Gaisser 88
München ( Hugo Helbing), 1913-06-17, no. 21

The peasant paintings of Franz von Defregger (1835-1921) are also old fashioned. We can hardly believe that he wanted to imitate Adriaen Brouwer, but in the beginning he clearly seems to have had something like that in mind [i][i].316

Franz von Defregger  
Egger Matzl dated 1879
oil paint / canvas, 26 x 21 cm
upper right :  Defregger
lower right :  1879
Private collection

Franz von Defregger  
Old man and young woman dancing in an inn 1870s
oil paint / canvas, 33 x 40,5 cm
lower left :  Defregger
private collection  Georg Schäfer, Schweinfurt, no. 75148923

There is only one artist who captured and experienced Brouwer as a painter: Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908) [i]. He wanted to become a painter instead of an engineer and was sent to Düsseldorf for his education. From there he travelled to Antwerp, where he saw Rubens, Brouwer, David Teniers II and Frans Hals. He himself related that these artists unsettled him and depressed him so much that he despaired of ever being able to make something great. He never made a secret of his admiration for the Dutch masters. He had copied pictures of Brouwer [i][i] and captured him appropriately in his witty sketches, as well as in his oil sketches [i][i][i] and his countless drawings, which accompanied his verses.317 Brouwer’s style of landscape fascinated him [i] and like Brouwer he understood how to take in the essential of a situation in a flash and render it in words and images. Nobody would consider the idea of putting Busch down as a Brouwer imitator; even the few copies after old masters are rendered fresh and natural, as if he didn’t have to follow an example.318

Wilhelm Busch  
A woman disciplining a todller (1870 - 1879)
oil paint / panel, 24,3 x 29,3 cm
lower right :  W. Busch
Nationalgalerie (Berlijn), Berlin, no. A III 872

Wilhelm Busch  
Two peasants and an innkeeper in a village inn (1857 - 1908)
oil paint / paper on cardboard, 14 x 18,5 cm
upper right :  W. Busch
Wilhelm-Busch-Museum. Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Kritische Grafik, Hannover, no. 1111a

Wilhelm Busch  
Two peasants in a village inn (1857 - 1908)
oil paint / paper on cardboard, 22,2 x 25,5 cm
lower right :  W. Busch
Wilhelm-Busch-Museum. Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Kritische Grafik, Hannover, no. 1078

Wilhelm Busch  
Self-portrait of Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908) in 17th-century costume (1869 - 1871)
oil paint / panel, 42,3 x 30,7 cm
upper left :  W. Busch
Wilhelm-Busch-Museum. Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Kritische Grafik, Hannover, no. 1017

Wilhelm Busch   after Adriaen Brouwer  
Man pulling a nasty face (1857 - 1908)
oil paint / paper on cardboard, 20,5 x 15 cm
upper right :  W.B.
Wilhelm-Busch-Museum. Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Kritische Grafik, Hannover, no. 1063

Adriaen Brouwer  
Bitter draught (1620 - 1638)
oil paint / panel, 47,3 x 35,3 cm
lower right :  AB
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. 1076

Wilhelm Busch  
Landscape with rain (1847 - 1908)
oil paint / cardboard, 21 x 25 cm
Neue Pinakothek, Munich, no. 8523


309 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Danhauser: Grabner 2011. In 1842 Danhauser travelled to Germany, Holland and Belgium, together with the textile manufacturer Rudolf von Arthaber (1796-1867); his sketchbook is in the Albertina in Vienna (online). Several sketches after paintings (by Gerard ter Borch II, Gabriel Metsu, Rembrandt en Rubens), including the related works, are in RKDimages: 265744, 276915, 291617, 291683, 291684.

310 [Gerson 1942/1983] Images in Frimmel 1904A p. 73; Zimmerman 1923; Österreichische Kunsttopographie 1924, ill. 231; Berggrün 1887 , p. 74-75. Copy after Teniers II: Auction Vienna, 4 July 1935, no. 88. [Van Leeuwen 2018] In 1819 Waldmüller copied Hoogstraten’s Old Man in a Window of 1653 in a smaller, almost square format, to which he made a counterpart, Old Woman in a Window (Feuchtmüller 1996, p. 422, no. 47-48). The copies have not surfaced since 1878 and only of the woman is one image known. The image is a reproductive print based on a drawing by Gustave Frank, but it seems that a trompe l’oeil window frame was cut off. The painting must have been a copy after the work by Josef Hauzinger (1728-1786), which does show the trompe l’oeil frame, matching the Van Hoogstraten. In the Young Peasant Woman with Three Children in a Window (Neue Pinakothek) Waldmüller harks back to the Hoogstraten motif of the trompe l’oeil window. The copy after Teniers: RKDimages 291809.

311 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On J.G. Meyer: Alexander 1910. Meyer From 1840 on, Meyer exhibited several times at the Levende Meesters exhibitions in the Netherlands.

312 [Van Leeuwen 2018] See Gerson 1942/1983, p. 25, 122-124. About the Frans Hals-like technique of Zimmermann: maybe Gerson confused the artist with his more talented son, Ernst Karl Georg Zimmermann (1852-1901).

313 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On their travels to Holland: Häder 1999, esp. p. 56-60. Meyer painted several young women reading a letter, but the one dated 1890 (RKDimages 291802) is very close (but larger in size) to the Johannes Vermeer which came into the collection of the Rijksmuseum in 1885. It is documented that Meyer visited the Rijksmuseum in 1883 (and the Frans Hals Museum in 1883, 1896 and 1906), but the Vermeer was also on accessible in the collection of Adriaen van der Hoop. Bergvelt/Filedt Kok/Middelkoop 2004, p. 85, ill., p. 182, no. 194, ill. (with complete provenance).

314 [Gerson 1942/1983] Oldenbourg/Bernays 1922, vol. 2, p. 210.

315 [Gerson 1942/1983] Oldenbourg/Uhde-Bernays 1922, vol.2, p. 210, 294. Louis Corinth makes fun of the fact that people painted every other year in different way: old master style, like Munkácsy, Dutch, Scottish etc. Pietsch reprimands the Munich painters of 1888 for only paintin Dutch interiors (Oldenbourg/Uhde-Bernays 1922, vol.2, p. 230-231).

316 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Defregger: Defregger 1983, Rosenheim 1983.

317 [Gerson 1942/1983] Heppner 1938, with illustrations and quotes. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Lange/Küster/Dohe 2013.

318 [Gerson 1942/1983] Voss 1908, p. 1129; Dorner 1932.