We discussed the landscape painting of the animal painters up to the point where they had abandoned the Nicolaes Berchem idyll to turn towards a more naturalistic depiction in the taste of Paulus Potter; some progressive artists even had rejected all old fashioned practices. Painters of ‘the soldier´s life’ from Munich and Berlin, like Albrecht Adam, Peter Hess and Carl Schulz, who in the beginning still copied Philips Wouwerman, now painted realistic war pictures. Rudolf Kuntz (1797-1848), the horse painter from Karlsruhe, copied Potter’s bull from the Czernin Collection [i],293 but had shed all old master-like influence [i].

Heinrich Bürkel  
The smithy of a blacksmith in the mountains dated 1827
oil paint / panel, 32 x 38 cm
lower right :  H. Bürkel 1827
Private collection

Paulus Potter  
Cows leave a stable at a farm in the morning dated 1647
oil paint / panel (oak), 38,5 x 50 cm
lower right :  Paulus Potter. f. 1647.
Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Salzburg, no. 548

Rudolf Kuntz  
Portrait of a bay thoroughbred in a landscape with castle dated 1832
oil paint / canvas, 46,5 x 56,5 cm
lower left :  RKuntz fecit 1832
London (England) (Sotheby's), 2008-10-30, no. 133

The same goes for the slightly younger Heinrich Bürkel and Friedrich Gauermann. Like the Kobells, Heinrich Bürkel (1802-1869) came from the Palatine and he also had a natural talent for painting, which led him to the Dutch landscapists, as soon as he settled in Munich in 1822 [i][i][i].294 From Wouwerman he didn’t only take over the composition, but also the warm colors and the artistic merging in the painting [i]. In this way he arranged the Upper Bavarian landscape and folk life in his works [i][i].

Heinrich Bürkel  
Circus at rest in a barn c. 1867-1868
oil paint / panel, 29,5 x 40,5 cm
lower right : 
München (Hampel Kunstauktionen), 2010-03-23

Heinrich Bürkel  
Village Fair in Tirol dated 1830
oil paint / canvas, 48 x 63 cm
lower right :  HBÜRKEL 1830
Nationalgalerie (Berlijn), Berlin, no. W.S. 30

Heinrich Bürkel  
A farrier at work in his smithy in the mountains dated 1844
oil paint / canvas, 42 x 62 cm
lower right :  H. Bürkel 1844
Private collection

Heinrich Bürkel  
Great hay wagon in a Bavarian village dated 1839
oil paint / panel, 24 x 32,5 cm
lower left :  H. Bürkel 1839 München
Frankfurt am Main ( F.A.C. Prestel), 1929-03-06, no. 19

Heinrich Bürkel  
A painter saving his life up into a tree from a furious bull c. 1845-1850
oil paint / canvas, 27 x 34 cm
lower left :  HBÜRKEL
Private collection

In his early days, Friedrich Gauermann (1807-1862) had copied pictures of Jacob van Ruisdael [i][i] and Paulus Potter in Vienna and the landscapes with animals from his first period are not free from reminiscences of Jacob van Ruisdael’s forests and Paulus Potter’s animals [i][i][i][i].295 The romantic tone in his paintings, however, awakens memories of Aelbert Cuyp and Nicolaes Berchem. Despite the change in taste, Berchem’s legacy was not completely forgotten, and complemented with a ‘Cuyp Renaissance’ as a new element [i][i].

Friedrich Gauermann  
Cow shepherds resting in the meadow next to their cows dated 1829
oil paint / panel, 73 x 85 cm
lower right :  F. Gauermann 1829
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 3011

Friedrich Gauermann  
The Hay Wagon dated 1837
oil paint / canvas, 81 x 97 cm
Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, Vaduz-Vienna, no. GE 2103

Friedrich Gauermann  
Cattle and horse grazing under a tree dated 1849
oil paint / panel, 81 x 115,5 cm
F. Gauermann 1849
museum  Niederösterreichische Landesmuseum, Sankt Pölten, no. 5860

Friedrich Gauermann  
The farrier at work in his smithy dated 1828
oil paint / panel, 27,7 x 32,3 cm
F.G. 1828
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Neurenberg, no. GM2003

Friedrich Gauermann   after Jacob van Ruisdael  
Wooded landscape with travelers on a forest path dated 1823
oil paint / canvas, 24 x 30 cm
in verso :  Kopieret nach Ruisdael im Juni 1823 / Fritz Gauermann
Whereabouts unknown

Jacob van Ruisdael  
Wooded landscape with travelers on a forest path ca. 1660
oil paint / panel, 22,8 x 29,8 cm
lower right :  JvR
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, no. 456

Friedrich Gauermann  
A peasant woman milking a cow with cattle on a farmyard documented 1823
oil paint / canvas, 25,2 x 33,3 cm
Whereabouts unknown

Friedrich Gauermann  
Evening on the Alps at Berchtesgaden dated 1840
oil paint / canvas, 80 x 110 cm
lower right :  F. Gauermann / 1840
private collection  Arthaber, Vienna

Johann Nepomuk Rauch (1804-1847) [i][i] was inspired by Nicolaes Berchem and Paulus Potter, and Friedrich Voltz (1817-1886)296 [i][i] and Richard Burnier (1828-1884) [i][i] are unthinkable without the example of Aelbert Cuyp.297 Even a contemporary artist like Erik Richter (1889-1981) painted landscapes in Cuyp’s yellow light [i], flowers in the manner of Jan van Huijsum and interiors à la Johannes Vermeer.298

Friedrich Voltz  
Cows by the lakeshore with fishing boat dated 1871
oil paint / panel, 39 x 92 cm
lower right :  Fr. Voltz . 71
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2014-10-23, no. 1258

Friedrich Voltz  
Shepherdess resting with herd in a thunderstorm landscape dated 1854
oil paint / canvas, 30 x 27,5 cm
lower left :  F/Fr. Voltz 1854 München
London (England) (Christie's), 1996-10-09, no. 10

Erik Richter  
Landscape dated 1938
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
lower left :  Erik Richter / 1938
Whereabouts unknown

Johann Nepomuk Rauch  
Cowherds in Kuz'minki dated 1836
oil paint / panel, 34,2 x 43 cm
lower right :  J. N. Rauch pxt. 1836.
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2018-09-18, no. 37

Johann Nepomuk Rauch  
Landscape with Bull and Cow dated 1835
oil paint / copper, 20,5 x 23 cm
lower left :  J. N. Rauch pxt. 1835
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg (Russia), no. ГЭ-10482

Richard Burnier  
Dutch river landscape with cows in a flooded meadow dated 1875
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
lower right :  Richard Burnier 1875
Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf

Richard Burnier  
Cattle by the canal dated 1874
oil paint / canvas, 42 x 74 cm
lower right :  R Burnier 74
Edinburgh (Bonham), 2016-06-22, no. 155

The generation of romantic landscapists from the end of the 18th century looked for support of their aspirations to the moody Jacob van Ruisdael and the tedious Jan Wijnants.299 Caspar David Friedrich didn’t need such help, but lesser talents needed a model. Painters who came from Scandinavia or who painted Nordic scenes, like Johann Christian Dahl and Christian Ezdorf (1801-1851) [i][i][i], found the mountain romanticism they were looking for in Jacob van Ruisdael and Allaert van Everdingen.

Christian Ezdorf  
The torrent after 1821
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
on the frame :  bequeathed by Rev. Chauncey Hare Townshend, 1868
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, no. 1556-1869

Christian Ezdorf  
View of Eisenhammer in Sweden dated 1835
oil paint / canvas, 146,5 x 182,3 cm
location unknown : 
Neue Pinakothek, Munich

Christian Ezdorf  
Landscape with hunting scene dated 1826
oil paint / canvas on board, 70 x 82 cm
location unknown :  C. Ezdorf 1826
Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Stockholm, no. NM 1127

Even Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (1793-1865) started as a copyist of Dutch and Italian paintings for the lack of another teacher. His copies after Ruisdael are by no means his worst; they came into being when he visited the Dresden Gallery in 1827, although he had trained himself in copying already in Vienna [i][i][i][i].300 Waldmüller later utterly condemned copying and declared it useless for himself and others.301 All the same, in his youth, he painted some paintings in the manner of the old masters and his solid technique was most certainly a positive result from this unworthy business. His redemption came from the study after nature, as he stated himself. This is certainly correct, as he only became a creative artist from that time on.

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller   after school of Jacob van Ruisdael  
Forest road with hunting party dated 1826
oil paint / panel, 71 x 50 cm
location unknown :  Waldmüller 1826
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1983-06-21 - 1983-06-27, no. 393

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller   after Jacob van Ruisdael  
Forest landscape with shepherd and flock dated 1824
oil paint / canvas, 49 x 67 cm
lower center :  Waldmuller 1824
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2005-10-05, no. 247

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller   after Jacob van Ruisdael  
Wooded landscape with a view of the Jewish cemetery 'Beth Haim' in Ouderkerk a/d Amstel dated 1826
oil paint / canvas, 84 x 95,5 cm
lower left :  Waldmüller 1826
London (England) (Sotheby's), 1999-10-06, no. 115

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller   after Adriaen van de Velde  
Dutch polder landscape with cattle and milking peasant woman dated 1822
oil paint / panel, 56,5 x 48,5 cm
lower right :  Waldmüller 1822
in verso :  17.October 1822
Boedapest (Ernst-Museum), 1923-02-15, no. 647

The number of Jacob van Ruisdael followers was considerable in those days. The painter and etcher Friedrich Preller I (1804-1875) made such copies in his youth [i][i][i],302 while Carl Heinrich Rosenkranz (1801-1851) from Frankfurt am Main ‘studied Nature, Jacob van Ruisdael and Allaert van Everdingen’ [i][i][i].303

Carl Heinrich Rosenkranz  
Old chapel at the edge of a wood (1820 - 1851)
oil paint / canvas, 61 x 82 cm
lower left : 
München (Neumeister), 2000-12-06, no. 869

Carl Heinrich Rosenkranz  
Landscape with forest edge dated 1833
oil paint / canvas, 62 x 81,5 cm
lower center :  C H R. 33
no. 104

Carl Heinrich Rosenkranz  
View of Falkenstein, Taunus (1820 - 1851)
oil paint / panel, 37,7 x 53,5 cm

Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

Friedrich  Preller (I)   after Jacob van Ruisdael  
View of Bentheim castle dated 1822
oil paint / canvas, 53 x 80 cm
lower right :  18FP22 Weimar
Stiftung Weimarer Klassik und Kunstsammlungen, Weimar (Thüringen), no. G 84

Jacob van Ruisdael  
View of Bentheim castle early 1650s
oil paint / panel, 55 x 83,5 cm
lower right : 
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Dresden, no. 1496

Friedrich  Preller (I)  
Dolmen on the island of Rügen dated 1843
oil paint / canvas, 112 x 145 cm
location unknown : 
Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, Regensburg

The honey-sweet Carl Friedrich Lessing (1808-1880) [i][i][i],304 Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (1807-1863) and Andreas Achenbach (1815-1910) from Düsseldorf, couldn’t live without this example. Schirmer still wavered sometimes between Jan Both and Jacob van Ruisdael [i], but the latter attracted him more and more [i].305 Achenbach´s torrents would often be completely outdated and old-masterly, if modern staffage didn’t disturb the harmony [i][i][i][i].306

Andreas Achenbach  
Water mill near a village dated 1907
oil paint / panel, 38 x 46 cm
lower right :  A. Achenbach 07
Luzern (Galerie Fischer), 1983-05-17 - 1983-05-20, no. 1437

Andreas Achenbach  
Water mill in Westphalia dated 1883
oil paint / panel, ? x ? cm
lower right :  A. Achenbach / 83
Berlin ( Rudolph Lepke), 1906-11-13, no. 49

Andreas Achenbach  
Mountain landscape with stream an watermill dated 1864
oil paint / panel, 60 x 45,5 cm
lower left :  A. Achenbach / 64
Keulen (Lempertz), 2010-05-15, no. 1921

Andreas Achenbach  
Mountain stream with fisherman dated 1863
oil paint / panel, 48,7 x 40 cm
lower left :  A. Achenbach 63
museum  Museum Georg Schäfer, Schweinfurt, no. 82148813

Carl Friedrich Lessing  
The Millennial oak dated 1837
oil paint / canvas, 123 x 165,5 cm
left center :  C. F. L. 1837
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. 1011

Carl Friedrich Lessing  
The Siege of a Cemetery (An episod from the Thirty Years War) dated 1848
oil paint / canvas, 113 x 174 cm
lower left :  JL 1848
Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, no. 4037

Carl Friedrich Lessing  
Churchyard with mortuary ruins dated 28 September 1826
oil paint / canvas, 112 x 163 cm
lower right :  Cfl 28. September 26
Musée du Louvre, Paris, no. RF 1999-10

Johann Wilhelm Schirmer  
Evening dated 1857
oil paint / canvas, 122 x 160 cm
lower right :  J.W. Schirmer
Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, no. 1857

Johann Wilhelm Schirmer  
Path on the edge of the wood c. 1851
oil paint / canvas, 97 x 128,5 cm
lower left :  J.W. Schirmer
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, no. 1312

Charles Hoguet (1821-1870) from Berlin approached Ruisdael somewhat more independently [i][i][i].307 Otto Frölicher (1840-1890) seems to me to be a good example of an artist who created panoramic landscapes, first in Munich and then in Paris, after the example of Georges Michel in the Dutch way, which do not lack a certain grandeur [i][i][i].308

Otto Frölicher  
Landscape with tree c. 1878
oil paint / canvas, 41,2 x 33 cm
Aargauer Kunsthaus, Aarau, no. 669

Otto Frölicher  
Emerging thunderstorm near the Ammer river dated 1889
oil paint / canvas, 100 x 135 cm
Kunstmuseum Solothurn, Solothurn, no. GKS333

Otto Frölicher  
Wooded landscape with a rapid (1859 - 1890)
oil paint / canvas, 113,5 x 70,5 cm
lower left :  O. Fröhlicher
Berlin ( Hugo Helbing), 1916-10-17, no. 21

Charles Hoguet  
Landscape with rocks and waterfall dated 1846
oil paint / canvas, 50 x 70 cm
lower right :  C. Hoguet 1846
art dealer  Galerie Dr. Fresen, Munich

Charles Hoguet  
Approaching storm dated 1846
oil paint / canvas, 50 x 70 cm
lower right :  C. Hoguet 1846
London (England) (Christie's), 1992-11-27, no. 18

Charles Hoguet  
The Marksburg on the River Rhine dated 1869
oil paint / canvas, 118 x 142 cm
lower right :  C. Hoguet 1869
on the back :  Die Marksburg bei Braubach a. R / C Hoguet
London (England) (Christie's), 1993-06-18, no. 90


293 [Van Leeuwen 2018] The early works of Rudolf Kuntz probably are rather similar to those of his father. Maybe Gerson referred to a work in the Mannheimer Schlossgalerie. We couldn’t retrieve an image.

294 [Gerson 1942/1983] A very Dutch painting by him in the manner of Wouwerman and Lingelbach: Auction Frankfurt, 17 February 1925, no. 30. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Bürkel: Bühler/Krückl 1989.

295 [Gerson 1942/1983] Frimmel 1918; Frimmel 1908. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Gauermann: Feuchtmüller 1987. Gauermann was the son of an engraver and collected prints and drawings. He also copied Philip Wouwerman (e.g. RKDimages 269576), who also had an impact on his work (e.g. RKDimages 291452 and 291501).

296 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Voltz travelled to the Netherlands in 1846 and visited the Mauritshuis in The Hague, where he studied The Bull of Paulus Potter. Back in Munich he made steel engravings after paintings of Potter, Philips Wouwerman and Frans Adam van der Meulen (Passavant 1851, nos. 140, 164 and 166). RKDimages 231376, 251750 and 229402.

297 [Gerson 1942/1983] E.g. Cows near the Water, illustration in Willemsen 1914, p. 545. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Burnier was born in The Hague, where he went to the academy before he went to the Düsseldorf academy. Subsequently he studied with Constant Troyon in Paris. Burnier mixed the Düsseldorfer Malerschule with the School of Barbizon and the Dutch landscape painters of the 17th century. On Burnier: Düsseldorf 1965.

298 [Gerson 1942/1983] Exhibition Munich 1938. [Van Leeuwen 2018] No still-lifes or interiors were among the artworks by Erik Richter on the exhibition in Munich , nos. 792-796. Gerson must have seen the paintings, as he wrote about the ‘yellow light’, and in the catalogue is only one black-and-white illustration. We could not find other images to illustrate what Gerson was aiming at.

299 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On the impact of especially Ruisdael on foreign landscape painters in the 19th century: Rosales Rodríguez 2016, p. 273-319.

300 [Gerson 1942/1983] Berggrün 1887; Frimmel 1904; Frimmel 1910. Copies after Ruisdael, Adriaen van de Velde, Potter e.g. in Städtische Gemäldegalerie, Budapest; Johanneum in Graz; former collection Berggrün, auction Budapest 15 February 1923, no. 647; Auction Vienna 20 March 1918, no. 218, etc. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Copies after Ruisdael: Feuchtmüller 1996, nos. WV 109. 144, 145, 147, 148, 186, 187. Copies after Potter: Feuchtmüller 1996, nos. WV 126, 146. Copy after A. van de Velde: Feuchtmüller 1996, no. WV 110.  In Vienna Waldmüller copied Ruisdael and Potter under direction of Johann Nepumuk Schödlberger (1779-1853).

301 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Voermann 2012, p. 43-45.

302 [Gerson 1942/1983] Ruland 1904, p. 9. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Voermann 2012, p. 324, fig. 23-24. Preller made copies after Jacob Ruisdael and Paulus Potter in the Galleries in Dresden in the summers of 1821 and 1822. In 1824-1826 he studied at the Academy in Antwerp, with a stipend of Duke Carl August von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach. On Preller: Weinrautner 1997.

303 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gwinner 1862, p. 451. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Although Thieme/Becker lists this artist as ‘Heinrich Rosenkranz’, his correct name is probably Carl Heinrich Rosenkranz, as he used the monogram ‘C.H.R.’ Particularly Ruisdael had a long-lasting impact on his work.

304 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Lessing: Sitt 2000.

305 [Gerson 1942/1983] In Schirmer’s estate sale, two copies after Ruisdael and a ‘Reminicencz’ by Schirmer after Rembrandt are recorded (Karlsruhe 1863, p. 4-5, nos. 6 and 29-30). [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Schirmer: Holsten/Theilmann et al. 2002.

306 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Achenbach: Ponten 1983, Baumgärtel et al. 2016-2017. In the last composition, RKDimages 291640, dated 1907, there are even blast-furnaces visible next to the church tower; nevertheless there still is a Ruisdael atmosphere.

307 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Hoguet: Häder 1999, p. 260, Nerlich/Savoy et al. 2013-2015, vol. 1 (2013), p. 117-120.

308 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Frölicher: Hohl-Schild 1990. Obviously, Gerson observed the resemblance to the work of Philips Koninck, which also was the source of inspiration for Georges Michel.