Less complicated and for our study more productive is the picture that landscape painting offers us. At the end of the 17th century we found many Dutch schooled landscapists in Bohemia and Vienna , such as Anton Faistenberger I, Frans de Paula Ferg, Wenzel Lorenz Reiner, Joseph Orient, Johann Jakob Hartmann and the group of Southern German painters.248

This group found its continuation in Christian Hilfgott Brand (1694-1756), a pupil of Christoph Ludwig Agricola, who made many small landscapes in the taste of Jan Both and Claes Berchem [i][i]. Once he also copied a landscape etching by Adriaen van Ostade.249 Von Frimmel attributes two little paintings to him, which are completely done in the landscape style of Claes Molenaer [i][i].250

attributed to Christian Hilfgott Brand  
Dutch fishing village (1720 - 1756)
oil paint / canvas, 80 x 116 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1926-05-17 - 1926-05-18, no. 77



attributed to Christian Hilfgott Brand  
Dutch village at a river (1720 - 1756)
oil paint / canvas, 80 x 116 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1926-05-17 - 1926-05-18, no. 78



Christian Hilfgott Brand  
Landscape with travelers resting in front of the ruins of an abbey dated 1756
oil paint / canvas, 42,5 x 55 cm
location unknown :  Ch. Brand 1756
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1980-11-10 - 1980-11-14, no. 275



Christian Hilfgott Brand  
Southern landscape (1709 - 1756)
oil paint / canvas, 140,7 x 218 cm
center right :  ....
München (Hampel Kunstauktionen), 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, no. 207



Johann Franz Nepomuk Lauterer  
Italianate landscape with travelers and herdsmen crossing a river (1715 - 1733)
oil paint / canvas, 18 x 25,5 cm
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich, no. 5259



Johann Franz Nepomuk Lauterer (1700-1733), a pupil of Joseph Orient, did the same in a charming way and in good taste [i].251 Franz Christoph Janneck (1703-1761) is more Flemish oriented in his landscapes [i][i] and genre paintings and Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl (1697-1762) picked up a wide variety of schools, without a particular preference for the Dutch [i][i][i].

Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl  
A panoramic winter mountain landscape (1712 - 1762)
oil paint / panel, 27 x 38 cm
in verso :  Schinnagl Bavarius pinxit Vienne
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2010-10-13, no. 492



Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl  
Mountain landscape with a stone bridge (1712 - 1762)
oil paint / canvas, 52,5 x 70 cm
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 5594



Franz Christoph Janneck  
Landscape with an elegant hunting party and a number of hounds chasing two deers near a river dated 1728
oil paint / panel, 26,9 x 31,6 cm
lower left :  FC Janneck Px Ao 1728
Amsterdam (Sotheby's), 2009-05-05, no. 100



Franz Christoph Janneck  
Extensive wooded landscape with an elegant hunting party and hounds attacking a wild boar dated 1728
oil paint / panel, 26,9 x 31,6 cm
lower right :  FC Janneck Px 1728
Amsterdam (Sotheby's), 2009-05-05, no. 100



Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl  
Mountain landscape with a rock arch (1712 - 1762)
oil paint / canvas, 52 x 70 cm
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 5593



Norbert Grund (1717-1767) was primarily active in Bohemia.252 Although Franz de Paula Ferg was not his teacher, as was earlier presumed, Grund worked under his influence and received a good dose of French Rococo elegance from him [i][i][i][i]. Grund was versatile and well-travelled, so that the Dutch Berchem tradition very soon gave way to other impressions. There are especially many points of similarity with Venetian artists like Francesco Zuccarelli.

Norbert Grund  
Landscape with two travelers, in the background burning buildings (1732 - 1767)
oil paint / canvas, 23,5 x 33,5 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1998-06-10, no. 294



Norbert Grund  
Year market scene (1732 - 1767)
oil paint / panel, 34,5 x 54,5 cm
lower right :  NG
Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, no. 2198



Norbert Grund  
Landscape with Tobias and the Angel (1732 - 1767)
oil paint / panel, 21 x 26 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2003-03-27, no. 235



Norbert Grund  
Landscape with Hagar and the Angel (1732 - 1767)
oil paint / panel, 21 x 26 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2003-03-27, no. 235



Johann Christian Brand  
Evening landscape dated 1771
oil paint / panel, 29 x 36 cm
location unknown :  1771
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 4092



Johann Christian Brand (1722-1795),253 son of the aforementioned Christoph Hilfgott Brand, on the other hand, tends more towards the Dutch way [i][i], although he also copied David Teniers II.254 There are landscapes with ruins, which develop or restyle Berchem’s genre into the Rococo [i][i], river landscapes following the line of Herman Saftleven, Jan Griffier and Christian Georg Schütz [i] and drawings harking back to Jan Both [i]. If two paintings in the Liechtenstein Gallery are rightly attributed to Jakob Friedrich Leclerc (1717-after 1768) [i][i],255 he belongs to the Jan Brueghel imitators, like Johann Jakob Hartmann before him.

Johann Christian Brand  
Horseman and travellers at a river side (1740 - 1795)
graphite / paper, 297 x 213 mm
lower left :  Brand junior
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, no. 4470



Jakob Friedrich Leclerc   or F. Decler  
An army advancing through a mountain pass (1732 - 1768)
oil paint / canvas, 48 x 68 cm
Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, Vaduz-Vienna, no. 368



Jakob Friedrich Leclerc   or F. Decler  
An army camp in the plains, in the distance a battle rages (1732 - 1768)
oil paint / canvas, 48 x 68 cm
Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, Vaduz-Vienna, no. 368



Johann Christian Brand  
Landscape with ruin and rider in the moonlight dated 1771
oil paint / panel, 29 x 36,7 cm
location unknown :  1771
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 4102



Johann Christian Brand  
Landscape with a ruin at a stretch of water dated 1769
oil paint / panel (oak), 19,8 x 29 cm
left center :  1769 / Brand
Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), Berlin, no. 1965



Johann Christian Brand  
Landscape with a tower c. 1769
oil paint / panel (oak), 19,9 x 29 cm
Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), Berlin, no. 1964



Johann Christian Brand  
River landscape with a tower and farmers (1740 - 1795)
oil paint / canvas, 28 x 41 cm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1998-03-12, no. 396



The German engraver Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) in Paris repeatedly bought paintings by the young Brand.256 Two other Austrians, Franz Edmond Weirotter (1733-1771)257 and Jakob Matthias Schmutzer (1733-1811),258 studied drawing and etching under Wille’s direction in Paris. Weirotter worked among others after Pieter de Molijn [i], Jan van Goyen [i], Aert van der Neer [i] ̶ and Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich. His own inventions are accordingly Dutch [i][i][i]. Schmutzer also drew and painted some landscapes to the old Dutch recipe [i][i][i].

Franz Edmund Weirotter  
Farm at the riverside with fishermen in a rowing boat probably after 1765
oil paint / copper, 18,5 x 26,5 cm
lower right :  F.E. Weirotter
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1974-03-12 - 1974-03-15, no. 147



Franz Edmund Weirotter  
Farm at the riverside with fishermen in rowing boats probably after 1765
oil paint / copper, 18,5 x 26,5 cm
bottom left of the middle :  F.E. Weirotter
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1974-03-12 - 1974-03-15, no. 148



Franz Edmund Weirotter  
View of a peasant village with a large water well dated 1762
pencil / blue paper, 120 x 183 mm
upper right :  F. Weirotter den 1762
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1983-03-22 - 1983-03-28, no. 598



Jakob Matthias Schmutzer  
Landscape near Mödling with figures dated 1795
brush in brown / paper, ? x ? mm
lower left :  Schmuzer 795
on the mount :  Der innere Briel bey Mödling 224/3
on the mount :  2279.c/-.18
on the back :  8
on the back :  220 220/1217
on the back :  J.N.S.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, no. 2009.411



Franz Edmund Weirotter   after Pieter de Molijn  
Bridge across a canal: The month May c. 1760
etching / paper, ? x ? mm
lower left :  P. Molyn inv. et del.
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge (Massachusetts), no. M9618



Franz Edmund Weirotter   after Jan van Goyen   published by Gabriel Huquier  
Spring c. 1760
etching / paper, 224 x 314 mm
Whereabouts unknown



Franz Edmund Weirotter   after Aert van der Neer   published by François Basan  
Skating in a village c. 1760
etching / paper, 310 x 290 mm
lower left :  Wandreneer Delin.
lower right :  F. Basan Excu
lower center :  PETIT VILLAGE PRES D'AMSTERDAM. / a Paris ches Basan
Whereabouts unknown



Jakob Matthias Schmutzer  
Walkers on a road outside a village 1811
graphite / paper, 440 x 550 mm
lower left :  I. Schmuzer 1811
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, no. 25178



Jakob Matthias Schmutzer  
Area near Gablitz south of Riederburg dated 1794
brush in grey / paper, 437 x 590 mm
lower right :  Schmuzer 1794
on the back :  J. Kuderna
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, no. 30581



Next to Nicolaes Berchem, Philips Wouwerman was a favourite examplar. August Querfurt (1696-1761) from Wolfenbüttel, 259 who was in Vienna from 1763, stayed close to his example and furthermore seems to have schooled himself by copying [i][i].260 Looking carefully, we can see that Querfurt connected the feathery brushwork of the master’s late style to compositions deriving from early pictures, in the same way Pieter Wouwerman used to do [i][i]. Battle scenes tie into Jan Martsen de Jonghe and Jan Huchtenburg [i]. Apart from some elegant portraits, Querfurth has been thoroughly Dutchified, even in his rare still-lifes [i].

August Querfurt  
Visit to the farrier (1715 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 28,5 x 34,5 cm
lower right :  A.Q.
Berlin (Bassenge), 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, no. 6046



August Querfurt  
Horseman at a resting point in a landscape (1715 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 27,5 x 34 cm
lower left :  A.Q.
Berlin (Bassenge), 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, no. 6048



August Querfurt  
A horse market in a hilly landscape (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / canvas, 52 x 58 cm
lower right :  A. Qu....
Luzern (Galerie Fischer), 2009-11-11, no. 1061



August Querfurt   after Philips Wouwerman  
Departure of a hawking party (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / copper, 47 x 57 cm
A. Querfurt
Museo Correr, Venice, no. I 200



Philips Wouwerman  
Departure of a hawking aprty c. 1665
oil paint / canvas, 55,7 x 80,4 cm
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg (Russia), no. 836



August Querfurt  
Fruit piece with wineglass (1720 - 1761)
oil paint / canvas, 50,5 x 40 cm
lower right :  Querfurt
Galerie Dr. Riedl, Munich



The well-travelled Francesco Casanova (1727-1802),261 settled in Vienna from 1783. He schooled himself in Dresden on the numerous works by Philip Wouwerman, which is clearly visible in his paintings, although his style can in no way be described as Wouwerman imitation [i][i]. In Munich we already noticed, how the taste for Wouwerman fell out of fashion at the end of the Rococo and how the ‘bourgeois realistic’ Potter took his place. Wilhelm Kobell worked precisely in this time of transition. In Vienna this stage is represented by Alexander von Dallinger (1783-1844), who apart from this, doesn’t give us cause to consider him further. Only so much needs to be said, that he found the way to nature through Potter’s cows [i][i], although he was more successful in painting horses than the ruminants.262

Alexander von Dallinger  
Three cows with a farmer in a meadow (1797 - 1844)
oil paint / panel, 24,5 x 30,4 cm
location unknown :  Alexander Dallinger jacun a son gout
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2014-02-17, no. 245



Francesco Casanova  
Battle scene of horsemen on a bridge c. 1780
oil paint / canvas, 132 x 200 cm
lower left :  F. Casanova
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, no. Gemäldegalerie, 1204



Francesco Casanova  
Battle scene dated 1792
oil paint / canvas, 261 x 377 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, no. 1805



Alexander von Dallinger  
Farmer with cows in the meadow dated 1831
oil paint / panel, 62 x 82,5 cm
lower center :  Alexander von Dallinger / Viene fecit 1831
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, no. 2792



Footnotes

248 [Gerson 1942/1983] See p. 271-272, 276. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson/van Leeuwen et al. 2017-2018, § 6 and 7.

249 [Gerson 1942/1983] Prague 1884, p. 35, no. 94. [Van Leeuwen 2018] It concerns a painting on canvas, 32 x 48 cm, of a landscape with a wooden bridge and farmers, after an etching by Adriaen van Ostade. We could not find an image.

250 [Gerson 1942/1983] Auction Vienna, 17 May 1926, nos. 77-78. [Van Leeuwen 2018] The two paintings obviously were not sold in this auction, because they occurred again in two different auctions: Vienna (Dorotheum) 21-23 June 1926, no. 127 and Vienna (Dorotheum) 22/23 November 1926, no. 1, with the same image and same attribution.

251 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Biermann 1914, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 82, vol. 2, p. XXX. According to an annotation by Marijke de Kinkelder, former curator of the RKD, the painting is based on a composition of Jan Asselijn.

252 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Grund: Vondráčková 2017.

253 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Brand: Krapf 1983.

254 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson probably meant that the rural atmosphere with chatting farmers corresponds somewhat to landscapes by David Teniers II. We did not find any direct derivation from Teniers.

255 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Theodor von Frimmel attributed the painting to a certain F. Decler in his personal copy of Vienna 1885, p. 51 (RKD). This is probably not Jaokob Friedrich Leclerc, who made portraits and still-lifes, e.g. RKDimages xxxx.

256 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Wille: Décultot 2009.

257 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Weirotter: Winterberg 1989.

258 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Schmutzer: Zmölnig 2008.

259 [Van Leeuwen 2018] See also § 2.3.

260 [Van Leeuwen 2018] As this painting by Wouwerman was in Paris during Querfurt’s lifetime, Querfurt must have known it through a reproductive print.

261 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Casanova: Kuhn 1984.

262 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson probably referred to paintings by his brother Johann von Dallinger II (1782-1868), who painted horses (e.g. RKDimages 291314).