A curious representative of the romantic Holland-mania is George Heinrich Hergenröder (1736- 1799), who was active in Offenbach and Frankfurt. His spelunks and caves in the style of Abraham van Cuylenborch, Rombout van Troyen and such-like masters must have been well known in their time [i][i]. Valley landscapes from the vicinity of Frankfurt are modelled on the pattern of Christian. Georg Schütz, which in no way means that they were modern pictures.136

Georg Heinrich Hergenröder  
Robbers in a den of thieves 1780s
panel (oak), 20,7 x 26,6 cm
Neue Galerie (Kassel), Kassel (Hessen), no. GK 746 (1875/760)

Georg Heinrich Hergenröder  
Cave with fountain with women bathing (1751 - 1799)
oil paint / panel (oak), 19,8 x 23,5 cm
lower left :  1216
on the back :  1216
Neue Galerie (Kassel), Kassel (Hessen), no. GK 747 (1875/761)

Georg Heinrich Hergenröder  
Interior of a grotto with figures dated 17..
oil paint / panel, 33 x 25,5 cm
location unknown :  GH Hergenröder 17..
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2010-10-13, no. 523

Georg Heinrich Hergenröder  
Interior of a grotto with soldiers dated 17..
oil paint / panel, 33 x 25,5 cm
location unknown :  GH Hergenröder 17..
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2010-10-13, no. 523

The landscapes of Christian Georg Schütz I (1708-1791)137 follow a well-known and proven model to wit: they are direct continuations of Herman Saftleven’s Rhine landscapes [i][i][i] (ill. 92). ‘Schütz, who in the way of Saftleven, painstakingly revised the Rhine areas ’, Goethe remarked, much to the point. From Hüsgen we learn, that Schütz got to know and admire the paintings by Saftleven in the cabinet of Heinrich Jakob Baron von Häckel (c. 1682-1760).138

Von Gwinner was of the opinion that his works, though not so fine, surpass their models ‘by a greater freedom, force and warmth of the brush’; one should not form too negative a view of him based on the many works falsely attributed to the artist. We can easily admit that the ‘real’ Schütz paintings are very pretty representations of the Rhine area, and that he enriched the compositions of Saftleven’s models with a certain admixture of German romanticism. Schütz also painted landscapes with ruins in the manner of Frederik de Moucheron and his followers [i][i]; the night effects of Aert van der Neer are also echoed [i]. The Goethe Museum in Frankfurt retains a view of this city by him. The landscape itself with a forest lake in the foreground could have been lifted without alteration from a Ruisdael painting [i].

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
View of Bad Pyrmont from the North dated 1774
oil paint / canvas, 70,4 x 90,5 cm
lower right :  Schüz fecit / 1774
Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. IV-1998-004

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
Rhine landscape with farmers watering their cattle near a ruinous castle dated 1775
oil paint / copper, ? x ? cm
lower center :  Schüz fecit / 1775
Bern (Switzerland) (Stuker), 2017-06-15 - 2017-06-20, no. 2053[b]

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
Panoramic landscape dated 1763
oil paint / panel, 45 x 53 cm
Kunsthandel Albrecht Neuhaus, Würzburg

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
River landscape at morning light (1733 - 1791)
oil paint / panel (oak), 51,7 x 78,8 cm
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. 596

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
River landscape with castles, city view and shipping (1733 - 1791)
aquarel paint (watercolor) / paper on cardboard, 195 x 245 mm
Vienna (Dorotheum), 1973-09-18 - 1973-09-21, no. 110

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
River vailley in the moonlight probablyc. 1765
oil paint / canvas, 29 x 39 cm
lower center :  'SCHüZ. / inv. et. fec
London (England) (Christie's), 2013-10-31, no. 131

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)  
Wooded landscape near the 'Stralenberger Hof' in the vicinity Frankfurt am Main dated 1780
oil paint / copper, 52,5 x 41,8 cm
lower right :  Schütz fecit. / 1780
Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. IV-016800

His eldest son, Franz Schütz (1751-1781), who seems to have painted very little, continued his father’s painting in the Saftleven and Both-Moucheron style [i][i], at least until 1777, in which year the patron from Basel, Johann Rudolf Burckhardt (1750-1813) brought him over to Switzerland to have him work in the Alps and Upper Italy. The second son, Johann Georg Schütz (1755-1813) pursued another direction; he occupied himself with the works by Rubens in Düsseldorf and during a stay in Rome he studied classical art [i]. Finally we have to mention Christian Georg Schütz II (‘the cousin’, 1758-1823), who imitated the Italianate Dutch masters and furthermore painted topographically correct Rhine views [i], which do not strictly adhere to the Saftleven parameters any longer.

Johann Georg Schütz  
Two satyrs looking at nymphs taking a bath dated 1787
oil paint / canvas, 73 x 61 cm
lower center :  J.G.Schüz / 1787
Vienna (Dorotheum), 2011-10-12, no. 637

Franz Schütz  
Rhine landscape with the ruin of a Gothic church c. 1775
oil paint / panel, 21,2 x 29,3 cm
Mittelrhein-Museum, Koblenz (Germany), no. MRM M 51

Franz Schütz  
Rhine landscape with the ruin of a gateway (1766 - 1781)
oil paint / canvas, 39,3 x 45,8 cm
Mittelrhein-Museum, Koblenz (Germany), no. MRM M 49

Christian Georg  Schütz (II)  
View of the Drachenfels looking downstream from south of Oberwinter dated 1799
oil paint, ? x ? cm
lower left :  Schütz pinxit 1799
private collection  Sammlung RheinRomantik, Bonn, no. 138

To the followers of the Schütz family, Von Gwinner counts Johann Jacob Moevius (1767-1836) [i], Franz Hochecker (1730-1782)139 [i][i] and Peter Kessler (1771-1845), while Karl Franz Kraul (1754-1796) is said to have studied and copied especially the landscapes of Jacob van Ruisdael [i][i][i].

Karl Franz Kraul  
Forest landscape with sand road and farm ca 1784
oil paint / panel (oak), 18,5 x 25,4 cm
Historisches Museum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, no. Pr331

Karl Franz Kraul  
Oak forest with two straw huts, in the foreground a stream with two farmers in a boat (1770 - 1796)
brush in black / brown-grey paper, 187 x 268 mm
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

Karl Franz Kraul   and Johann Georg Pforr  
Entrance to the forest near Frankfurt dated 1786
oil paint / panel (oak), 68 x 90,3 cm
lower right :  CF Kraul et Pforr / 1786
on the back :  Eingang zum Frankfurter Stadtswald rechts unten signiert C.F. Kraul & Pforr 1786 wahrscheinlich aus der Sammlung Gogel
Hessisches Landesmuseum (Kassel), Kassel (Hessen), no. GK 1351

To this trend in Frankfurt landscape painting, more names could be added, especially when we might also include somewhat Flemish oriented masters like Johann Andreas Herrlein (1723-1796) [i][i][i].

Johann Andreas Herrlein  
Forest landscape with travelers resting after 1763
oil paint / panel, 22,7 x 32 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich, no. 5870

Johann Jacob Moevius  
View of the Church of Saint John in Frankfurt-Bornheim dated 1822
oil paint / panel (oak), 108 x 93 cm
lower left :  J. Moevius 1822
Frankfurt am Main (Auktionshaus Arnold), 2002-11-23 - 2002-12-07, no. 805

Franz Hochecker  
Rhine landscape with a castle on the bank with many human activities (1745 - 1782)
oil paint / canvas, 27 x 35,5 cm
München (Hampel Kunstauktionen), 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, no. 206

Franz Hochecker  
Rhine landscape with a town on the shore with many human activities (1745 - 1782)
oil paint / canvas, 27 x 35,5 cm
below, right of the middle :  F.H.-invenit et pinx.
München (Hampel Kunstauktionen), 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, no. 206

Johann Andreas Herrlein  
Hilly forest with ramblers in evening shine (1738 - 1796)
oil paint, 28,5 x 37,5 cm
lower left :  JA Herrlein inv pinxit
Ahlden ( Florian Seidel), 2009-09-12 - 2009-09-13, no. 1277

Johann Andreas Herrlein  
Forest landscape with a robbery after 1763
oil paint / panel, 22,7 x 32 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich, no. 5874

Let us call to mind one more time, that the younger members of the Roos family, like Johann Melchior Roos and Joseph Roos, kept up the tradition of ‘their house’ in Frankfurt and therefore perpetuated the Dutch-romantic cattle piece until well into the 18th century. But they were by no means the only ones. Johann Nikolaus Lentzner (1711-1749), whose wallpaper factory passed, by inheritance, to the above-mentioned Nothnagel, and Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée (1719-1760) [i][i] are nowadays little known painters who worked in the style of Johann Heinrich Roos and Nicolaes Berchem.140

Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée  
Moonlit landscape with riders and bystanders by a fire (1734 - 1760)
oil paint / canvas, 17,7 x 20,9 cm
Historisches Museum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, no. •hmf.Pr438

Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée  
Riders preparing for the falconry (1734 - 1760)
oil paint / canvas, 17,8 x 20 cm
Historisches Museum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, no. hmf.Pr437

Von Gwinner especially praised the landscapes of Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt (1721-1772) [i][i], who also was in the service of Duke Anton Ulrich of Sachsen-Meiningen (1687-1763).141 Johann Gottlieb Prestel (1739-1808) reproduced some of his drawings, which confirm Von Gwinner’s judgement [i][i].142 The animals in particular are captured very well and seen ‘in a Dutch way’, so that we may confidently assume that Schütz and others frequently availed themselves of his talents as a painter of staffage [i]. The engravers from Frankfurt like the Prestels, Jeremias Paul Schweyer (1754-1813) and Johann Kaspar Friedrich Neubauer (1798-1851) had a considerable share in the dispersal of Dutch art.

Regina Katharina Quarry   after Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt  
Shepherd with goats and sheep resting in a landscape c. 1779
aquatint / paper, 359 x 495 mm
MEWO Kunsthalle Memmingen, Memmingen

Regina Katharina Quarry   after Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt  
Shepherd with cattle at a ruin c. 1779
aquatint / paper, 375 x 508 mm
MEWO Kunsthalle Memmingen, Memmingen

Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt  
Arcadian landscape with shepherds and cattle at the bank of a river dated 1767
oil paint / panel, 30 x 37 cm
lower left :  W.F. Hirt 1767
Keulen ( Van Ham Kunstauktionen), 2009-11-20, no. 148

Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt  
Forest landscape with a church tower in the distance dated 1750
oil paint / panel (oak), 41,5 x 60 cm
lower left :  W. F. Hirt. / fecit 1750
Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, no. 1741

Christian Georg  Schütz (I)   and Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt  
Landscape with classical ruin, a bust of the artist and the St. Mary's church of Gelnhausen in the background before 1772
oil paint / copper, 40,5 x 48,8 cm
lower right :  Schutz. f.
Historisches Museum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main

To let the representatives of another direction have their say, let us consider Johann Georg Pforr (1745-1798), who seems to have had the nickname ‘the German Wouwerman’ [i][i][i].143 He spent his first years in Kassel, where he became friends with Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Von Gwinner contested the idea that we count Pforr among the imitators of Wouwerman, as ‘his only example was nature’.144 In a way we have to agree with him. Though one clearly notices the reminiscences of Aelbert Cuyp and Phlips Wouwerman in his paintings of horses, he succeeded in achieving a picture with a personal view.145 Johann Friedrich Morgenstern (1777-1844), a pupil of Klengel, painted panorama landscapes, which do not transcend the topographical representation [i].

Johann Friedrich Morgenstern  
Landscape with a town in the distance (Frankfurt?) dated 1806
oil paint / canvas, 99,3 x 71,2 cm
bottom (positional attribute) :  Joh: Fried: Morgenstern fec: 1806
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, no. HM 55

Johann Georg Pforr  
A market for horses dated 1784
oil paint / panel, 39,5 x 58,4 cm
lower center :  J.G. Pforr / 1784 / Frankfurt
art dealer  J.F. Hochleitner, Wallersdorf

Johann Georg Pforr  
Farmer with a gray horse on the reins and a horse rolling in the grass dated 1789
gouache (material/technique) / paper, 485 x 372 mm
lower right :  "J: G: Pforr. 1789./."
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, no. 6150

Johann Georg Pforr  
Horse being led to water dated 1794
oil paint / panel (oak), 52 x 70,5 cm
lower left :  J.G. Pforr / 1794
Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Niedersachsen), no. LMO Inv. 15.716


136 [Gerson 1942/1983] Kellner 1934.

137 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On C.G. Schütz I: Wettengl 1992.

138 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Hüsgen 1780, p. 182 187, esp. p. 183-184. On Von Häckel: Svenningsen 2016.

139 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Hochecker was married to the sister of Christian Georg Schütz I. Nine works in the Bildindex.

140 [Van Leeuwen 2018] According to Gwinner 1862, p. 279-280, who also mentioned the two illustrated panels from the Prehn’schen cabinet, which are in the manner of Philips Wouwerman.

141 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson erroneously stated Duke Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig (1633-1714).

142 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson quoted Gwinner 1862, p. 255. The aquatint prints after Hirt’s drawings ‘in the manner of Heinrich Roos’ are not executed by Prestel, as Gwinner wrote, but by his pupil Regina Katharina Quarry, born Schönecker (c. 1862-1821). Kiermeier-Debre/Vogel et al. 2008, p. 214, no. 1522, ill. on p. 165, p. 215, no. 1530, ill. on p. 181.

143 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fr.W. Ducrée and J.N. Lentner are said to have painted also pictures in the taste of Wouwerman. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Indeed the paintings by Ducrée which are illustrated are in the manner of Philips Wouwerman.

144 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gwinner 1862, p. 337-342.

145 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Biermann 1914, nos. 903-906. [Van Leeuwen 2018] RKDimages 290812-290814. For an interpretation by Pforr of The Bull by Paulus Potter (Mauritshuis, The Hague): RKDimages 290791.