2.3 Portrait and Landscape Painters in Braunschweig

The artistic life at the court of neighboring Braunschweig was, just like in Kassel, in close contact with the princely collection in Salzdahlum. Artists from Kassel came to Brunswick and vice versa. The portraitist Magnus Quitter, who came from a family in Kassel, first found employment as court painter and gallery director of Salzdahlum, before he succeeded his brother as mining inspector (!) in Kassel. Dietrich Ernst Andreae (1680-1730), whom we have met already, was active as a portrait painter in Kassel for two years (1717-1719). As a pupil of Jan van Bentum, he had absorbed some Dutch influence. His self-portrait in Braunschweig may serve as an example of this: it unites Rembrandt and the Haarlem tradition [i].92

Johann Georg Ziesenis (Copenhagen 1716-Hannover 1776) was in Holland for a long time as a portraitist, but Dutch 17th-century art had no impact on his work [i][i].93

Dietrich Ernst Andreae  
Self-portrait of Dietrich Ernst Andreae (c. 1680-1734) in green dressing gown between 1717-1719
oil paint / canvas, 78 x 64 cm
lower right :  Andre
lower left :  30 (Salzdahlum)
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 636



Johann Georg Ziesenis  
Portrait of Stadholder Willem V (1748-1806). c. 1768-1769
oil paint / canvas, 141 x 101 cm
Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, The Hague, no. 462



Johann Georg Ziesenis  
Portrait of Wilhelmina van Pruisen (1751-1820) c. 1768-1769
oil paint / canvas, 141 x 101 cm
Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, The Hague, no. 463



This could rather be said of Johann Christian Samuel Gohl (1743-1829), who was descended from a Dutch family, in particular of his Self-Portrait with Shadowed Face (Braunschweig) [i].94 In self-portraits we frequently notice the impact of Rembrandt. Philipp Wilhelm Oeding (1697-1781), a pupil of Johann Kupezky, took over the smooth surface treatment and warm light, at that time the epitome of Rembrandt’s art [i].

Philipp Wilhelm Oeding  
Self-portrait of the artist Philipp Wilhelm Oeding (1697-1781) with the portrait of his wife Helena between c. 1740-1750
oil paint / canvas, 110 x 84 cm
bottom (positional attribute) :  Oeding malt sich / und / seine Frau
lower left :  20 (Salzdahlem)
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 610



Johann Christian Samuel Gohl  
Self-Portrait of Johann Christian Gohl (1743-1829) dated 1778
oil paint / canvas, 71,5 x 59,5 cm
location unknown :  J. Gohl se ipse pinxit 1778
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 711



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch (1703-1772), a pupil of Andreae and for a while head of the Gallery at Salzdahlum, painted in the style of Rembrandt [i][i], Gerard Dou [i] and Adriaen van Ostade. His paintings are very rare nowadays, but some etchings after Rembrandt support this oral tradition [i][i][i][i].95

Ludwig Wilhelm Busch   afterRembrandt  
Head of an old man in a fur cap (1718 - 1772)
etching / paper, 53 x 40 mm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. LWBusch WB 3.8



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch   pasticcio afterRembrandt  
Abraham and Isaac just before the sacrifice (1718 - 1772)
etching / paper, 108 x 78 mm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. LWBusch AB 3.19



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch  
Saint Jerome (1718 - 1772)
etching / paper, 109 x 78 mm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. LWBusch AB 3.21



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch   after Jan Lievens  
Portrait of a young man in profile (self-portrait of Jan Lievens) (1718 - 1772)
oil paint / canvas, 62 x 46 cm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 1035



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch  
The Liberation of Peter by an angel from prison (Acts 12:6-10) (1718 - 1772)
oil paint / canvas, 45 x 61 cm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig



Johann Ludwig Blok   after Ludwig Wilhelm Busch  
A doctor in a window dated 1785
mezzotint / paper, 233 x 154 mm
Herzog August Library, Wolfenbüttel, no. Graph. A1: 212



Ludwig Wilhelm Busch   pasticcio afterRembrandt  
The flight into Egypt (1718 - 1772)
etching / paper, 107 x 78 mm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. LWBusch WB 3.13



The recollection of Dutch examples revived more clearly and stronger in animal and landscape painters. August Querfurth (1696-1761) was an excellent painter of horses and battles which are related to Philips Wouwerman [i][i][i][i][i][i][i],96 Jan Martszen de Jonge and Jan Huchtenburg [i][i][i][i].97 He was the son of the Braunschweig court-painter Tobias Querfurth, who married the daughter of painter Joachim Luhn, who is well known to us. We will encounter August Querfurt again when we come to speak about Vienna, where he settled in 1743.98

August Querfurt  
Visit to the farrier (1715 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 28,5 x 34,5 cm
lower right :  A.Q.
Berlin (Bassenge), 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, no. 6046



August Querfurt  
Horseman at a resting point in a landscape (1715 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 27,5 x 34 cm
lower left :  A.Q.
Berlin (Bassenge), 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, no. 6048



August Querfurt  
The Battle at Cornia on July 4, 1738 1751-1752
oil paint / canvas, 118 x 215 cm
private collection  Schloss Arolsen, Bad Arolsen



August Querfurt  
The Battle at Meadia on July 15, 1738 1751-1752
oil paint / canvas, 118 x 215 cm
private collection  Schloss Arolsen, Bad Arolsen



August Querfurt  
The Battle at Cornia on July 22, 1739 1751-1752
oil paint / canvas, 118 x 215 cm
private collection  Schloss Arolsen, Bad Arolsen



August Querfurt  
The Battle at Panzowa on August 1, 1739 1751-1752
oil paint / canvas, 118 x 215 cm
private collection  Schloss Arolsen, Bad Arolsen



August Querfurt   after Philips Wouwerman  
Departure of a hawking party (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / copper, 47 x 57 cm
A. Querfurt
Museo Correr, Venice, no. I 200



August Querfurt  
The departure of a company of riders (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / copper, 47 x 57 cm
Museo Correr, Venice, no. I 201



August Querfurt   after Philips Wouwerman  
Barn interior with a hunting company departing (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / panel (oak), 40 x 57 cm
lower center :  A. Querfurt
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 609



August Querfurt  
Departure for the falkonry (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 25 x 33 cm
Keulen ( Lempertz Heberle), 1905-11-27 - 1905-11-28, no. 71



August Querfurt  
Hunting party resting at a house with a smoking chimney (1711 - 1761)
oil paint / panel, 25 x 33 cm
Keulen ( Lempertz Heberle), 1905-11-27 - 1905-11-28, no. 72



Martin van  Meytens (II)   and August Querfurt  
Portrait of Charles August Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1704-1763) in 1753
oil paint / canvas, 433 x 322 cm
private collection  Schloss Arolsen, Bad Arolsen



The two Weitsches, father and son, are curious representatives of the Dutch spirit in Germany. Johann Friedrich Weitsch (1723-1803),99 a.k.a. Pascha-Weitsch, copied the landscape paintings in the Gallery of Salzdahlum. More in line with contemporary taste he followed Frederik de Moucheron rather than Jacob Ruisdael [i][i]. In the beginning he only painted small paintings in the style of these masters and animal paintings after Paulus Potter and in the manner of Adriaen van de Velde and Johann Heinrich Roos, but through the years he also painted more impressive works. The strange thing is however, that he saw nature with Dutch eyes. When he paints a subject from the erstwhile forest at Querum near Braunschweig (ill. 90) [i][i], one believes to see a composition in the manner of Jacob van Ruisdael, to such an extent had he familiarized himself with the technique and the conception of Dutch art. From 1788 he was also the head of the gallery of Salzdahlum. Again, one gets the impression that the Dutch landscapists served as a justification for 18th-century artists who wanted to paint a realistic-romantic landscape during a time in which elegant, French portraiture or conversation pieces were the only presentable thing.

Johann Friedrich Weitsch  
View of the oak forest at Querum dated 1784
oil paint / canvas, 55 x 72 cm
lower right :  F. Weitsch 1784
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 711



Johann Friedrich Weitsch  
View of the so-called Rosstrappe in the Bode valley in the Harz, Thuringia dated 1769
oil paint / canvas, 55 x 72 cm
lower left :  F. Weitsch. F. 1769
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 624



Johann Friedrich Weitsch  
Mountainous landscape with waterfall dated 1795
oil paint / canvas, 55 x 47 cm
lower left :  F. Weitsch.1795
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. GG769



Johann Friedrich Weitsch  
Shepherdess in the Querumer oak forest dated 1792
oil paint / canvas, 107 x 128 cm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. GG 625



His son Friedrich Georg Weitsch (1758-1828)100 copied his father, Paulus Potter and Philip Peter Rosa da Tivoli. In 1776 he was a pupil of Johann Wilhelm Tischbein I in Kassel and will also have enhanced his schooling through the examples of the Dutch masters in the gallery there. His landscapes are even more romantic than those of Ruisdael. However, he was mainly a portraitist and history painter. In this area one could also follow the Dutch manner. This is demonstrated in the portrait of his father with candlelight (Braunschweig) in the manner of Gerard van Honthorst and Gerard Dou [i] and the fresh portrait of Aloys Ludwig Hirt (1759-1837) before a bright wall (collection Fürstenberg in Donaueschingen, from the year 1785) [i], which seeks to emulate Jan de Bray and Pieter de Grebber from Haarlem.101

Friedrich Georg Weitsch  
Portrait of Pascha Johann Friedrich Weitsch (1723-1803), the artist's father dated 1797
oil paint / canvas, 89 x 72 cm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. GG 634



Friedrich Georg Weitsch  
The archeologist and art historian Aloys Ludwig Hirt (1759-1837) 1785-1787
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
Private collection



Weitsch sr. was also in contact with Johann Georg Wille in Paris, who sent his pupil J.L.L.C . Zentner (active c. 1783-1794) to Braunschweig to make prints after Weitsch’s paintings. Weitsch jr. provided paintings by his father and old Dutch masters to the collector Bernhard Hausmann (1784-1873) in Hannover.102 His knowledge of old painting may explain why he was sent to Paris in 1815, to reclaim the robbed art works.

In the case of the landscapist and genre painter Johann Heinrich Ramberg (1763-1840) from Hannover, one doesn’t suspect imitation of Dutch masters. It is true-blue bourgeois German art. Why then, out of the blue, he painted a soldier’s scene after Pieter de Bloot, remains an open question [i].103

Johann Heinrich Ramberg  
Company in an interior (1778 - 1840)
oil paint / panel, 18 x 27 cm
location unknown :  JHR
Arnot Galleries, London



Footnotes

92 [Gerson 1942/1983] See p. 235. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson/Van Leeuwen et al 2017-2018, § 2.13 ( http://gersongermany.rkdmonographs.nl/2.-north-germany/2.13-the-art-in-koenigsberg-and-other-courts-in-north-germany/ ).

93 [Van Leeuwen 2018] He copied a portrait by Ferdinand Bol in the Gallery in Düsseldorf in 1756, before he went to The Hague (RKDimages 284603 and 284602). On Ziesenis: Schrader 1995.

94 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustration in Biermann 1914, no. 489.

95 [Gerson 1942/1983] The collector Hausmann (p. 257), remarked on a copy after Rembrandt’s Disciples at Emmaus: ‘I believe, that it is painted by J.C. (= L.W.) Busch, who by his very successful imitations of Rembrandt, especially in his sketches, has often fooled us (remark by Mr. A. Lemke in Hannover). A small painting in the taste of Gerard Dou was in The Hague art-market in 1941.

96 [Gerson 1942/1983] Good examples of Wouwerman imitation are in Turin, nos. 316-317; Braunschweig no. 609; Auction Cologne, 27 November 1905, no. 72, to name but a few.[Van Leeuwen 2018] So far we have not retrieved images of the paintings in Turin. Instead, we added other examples.

97 [Gerson 1942/1983] See Querfurth’s battle-scenes of 1752 and the battle scene in the background of the portrait of Prince Karl von Waldeck in Arolsen (illustrations in Kramm 1938).

98 [Van Leeuwen 2018] See § 5.4.

99 [Van Leeuwen 2018} On J.F. Weitsch: König-Lein 1998.

100 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On F.G. Weitsch: Lacher 2005.

101 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations of Weitsch sr. & jr. a.o. in Biermann 1914, nos. 467, 938-939; Stechow 1926, no. 196, with illustration; it is of course impossible to depict both Weitsch’s as mere Ruisdael epigones. Straightforward topographical landscapes stand alongside compositions in the taste of Gaspar Dughet.

102 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Hausmann: Gatenbröcker 2005.

103 [Gerson 1942/1983] Art dealer G. Arnot, London 1938. [Van Leeuwen 2018] The straight connection to Pieter de Bloot escapes us.