The newly awakening landscape painting had much to thank the Dutch example for, although it was mainly the pleasing little paintings of the Italianate landscapists, to which people confined themselves. The artists of the 18th century were not so realistic yet, that they would trade the sunny shepherd’s paintings of a Berchem for a gloomy Ruisdael. There are no important talents to be mentioned. Carl Sylva Dubois (1668-1753) [i] and Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorf (1699-1753) [i] worked together with Pesne. Dubois was even an immigrant Fleming, who however is artistically nearer to Frederik de Moucheron than to Jacques d’Artois.24

Carl Sylva Dubois  
Extensive river landscape with mountainous border c. 1745
oil paint / canvas, 53 x 79 cm
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. 1049

Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff  
A pair of lovers in a park dated 1744
oil paint / canvas, 80 x 65 cm
lower left :  W.K. 1744
Anhaltische Gemäldegalerie - Schloss Georgium, Dessau (Saksen-Anhalt)

Above all, Jacob Philipp Hackert (1737-1807), deserves attention.25 That is, the early Hackert, because his classicistic, Italianate vedute betray no Dutch training whatsoever. In Berlin he learned mainly through the copying of old Dutch landscape paintings from the collection of James Tribel. When he became friends with Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) in Paris, he made no secret of his veneration for the Dutch. He even possessed a small collection of paintings with Dutch originals and copies made by himself. During his stay in the South he acquired –  naturally –  many Italian works, especially from the Naples school. The small paintings from his time in Berlin are by no means masterpieces: they show reminiscences of his namesake Jan Hackaert, of Frederik de Moucheron, Klaes Molenaer and other minor masters [i][i].

Jacob Philipp Hackert  
View of Rouen dated 1768
watercolor / paper, 16 x 21 cm
lower right :  Jacq.Ph:Hackert, f. 1768 a Paris / Rouën d'apres nature
London (England) (Christie's), 2010-07-07, no. 347

Jacob Philipp Hackert  
View of Château Gaillard in Les Andelys on the river Seine dated 1767
oil paint / copper, 40,3 x 31,9 cm
lower left :  Jacq. Ph: Hackert. f. 1767
Zürich (Koller), 2014-03-24 - 2014-03-29, no. 3090

Jacob Philipp Hackert  
The river Spree with the Palace Bridge in Berlin-Charlottenburg dated 1760
oil paint / canvas, 50 x 80 cm
lower left :  1760
lower right :  J.P. Hacke[....]
Private collection

Jacob Philipp Hackert  
View of the Goldfish Pond in the Berlin Zoo 'Tiergarten' c. 1761
oil paint / canvas, 59 x 74 cm

Private collection

The Parisian paintings become somewhat more lively – especially under the influence of Claude Joseph Vernet [i][i][i]. It was only in Italy that his style was to be definitely formulated, but neither he nor we would like to deny, that the Dutch masters gave him a ‘healthy foundation’ for his career.26

Jacob Philipp Hackert  
View of a ruined castle on the river Seine with an elegant company dated 1767
oil paint / copper, 40,3 x 31,9 cm
lower left :  Jacq: P. Hackert 1767
Zürich (Koller), 2014-03-24 - 2014-03-29, no. 3090

Minor masters, who never made it to Italy, clung longer to the Dutch ruin style, which sometimes formed a start to the topographical appreciation of their homeland, as is the case with Johann Georg Rosenberg (1739-1808) [i][i].27 In the landscapes of Johann Sebastian Bach (1748-1778) this style comes near to its classical origin of Claude Lorraine [i][i][i].28

Johann Georg Rosenberg  
Idealized landscape with ruins and shephards (1755 - 1808)
oil paint / canvas, 91 x 134 cm
München (Sotheby's), 1993-06-22, no. 35

Johann Georg Rosenberg  
View of Berlin from the Rollbergen at the Cottbuser Tor dated 178[.]
oil paint / canvas, 57 x 84 cm
lower right :  J. Rosenberg / Pinxt. 178[.]
Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), Berlin

Johann Sebastian Bach  
Arcadic forest landscape with a ruin and waterfall (1765 - 1778)
pen in brown ink / paper, 162 x 205 mm
Bach-Archiv Leipzig, Leipzig, no. Graph. Slg. 17/23

Johann Sebastian Bach  
River landscape with moonlight (1765 - 1778)
paper, 255 x 393 mm
Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg, Schloss Ehrenburg (Coburg), no. Z.0858

Johann Sebastian Bach  
Mountainous landschap with a ferry across a river (1765 - 1778)
graphite / paper, 281 x 395 mm
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Kupferstich-Kabinett, Dresden, no. C 2539

The etchers of the ‘Sturm und Drang’ like Carl Wilhelm Kolbe I (1757-1835) look to the Dutch for support in their enthusiasm for nature. The pleasing Anthonie Waterloo was much revered at this time [i][i][i].29 By the end of the century realism was taken seriously: Rosenberg is said to have painted already cattle pieces in the manner of Paulus Potter and Philips Wouwerman and Carl Schulz (1796-1866) for instance went one step further, from a Wouwerman-like landscape to real, actual naturalistic pictures with soldiers [i][i].

Carl Wilhelm  Kolbe (I)  
Forest landschape with cabin and wanderer dated 1810
graphite / paper, 267 x 379 mm
lower left :  C.W. Kolbe 1810
Galerie Biedermann, Munich

Carl Wilhelm  Kolbe (I)  
Oak tree at a forest lake c. 1798
red chalk / paper, 267 x 379 mm
upper left :  C.W. Kolbe ft
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, no. 1950-33

Carl Wilhelm  Kolbe (I)  
Mountainous landscape with farmhouses (1775 - 1835)
pen / paper, 298 x 385 mm
upper left :  Kolbe
Museum Folkwang, Essen (Noord-Rijnland-Westfalen)

Carl Schulz  
Return from the hunt dated 1834 and 1835
oil paint / canvas, 50,5 x 67 cm
lower left :  Carl Schulz 1834 / Carl Schulz 1835
Amsterdam (Christie's), 1995-10-26, no. 344

Carl Schulz  
Soldiers on bivouac dated 1831
oil paint / canvas, 74 x 86 cm
lower left :  C. Schulz 1831
Berlin ( A. Wertheim), 1930-12-11, no. 115

Peter Ludwig Lütke (1759-1831), the teacher of Karl Blechen (1798-1840) (who himself cast off the old master style of painting), imitated Ruisdael and Hobbema [i][i]. ‘Mr. Lütke is our Ruisdael’ it says in a newspaper article of 1826.30

Peter Ludwig Lütke  
Watermill near Klein Glienicke dated 1803
oil paint / canvas, 72 x 91 cm
lower left :  L. Lütke px 1803
Neues Palais, Potsdam (Germany), no. GK I 4292

Peter Ludwig Lütke  
View of Lake Nemi (1787 - 1831)
oil paint / canvas, 127 x 172 cm
Königliche Akademie der Künste Berlin, Berlin


24 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Dubois also made arcadian landscapes as supraportes in Sanssoucci, Potsdam (online in the Bildindex).

25 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Hackert a.o.: Nordhoff/Reiner 1994.

26 [Gerson 1942/1983] Lohse 1936, p. 8, 44, 48ff with ill.

27 [Van Leeuwen 2018] The oeuvres of Friedrich Rosenberg (1758-1833), Johann Georg Rosenberg and his cousin Johann Carl Wilhelm Rosenberg (1737-1809) are partly mixed up.

28 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Johann Sebastian Bach: Fröhlich 2007.

29 [Gerson 1942/1983] Grote 1936, esp. p. 387. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Kolbe: Michels et al. 2009, and on the connection to Dutch landscape painting: Vignau-Wilberg 2009.

30 [Gerson 1942/1983] Kern 1909, p. 433-435. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Kern refers to a Ruisdael-Hobbema imitation (more Hobbema than Ruisdael) in Potsdam that was confiscated by Russia in 1946. He also mentions a Lorrain-Both imitation that was exhibited by the Royal Academy in Berlin in 1906.